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Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2) Classics Algorithm Revealed by Flat_z


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81w ago - Following up on the previous updates, today PlayStation 3 developer Flat_z has revealed the Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2) Classics algorithm with details below.

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To quote: Ok, guys. Unfortunately I forced to admit that I have no more time to work on PS3 stuff because I'm very busy lately. So I decided to publish all information related to PS2 classics as JuanNadie did with the NPDRM algorithm one year ago.

Firstly I wanted to say that he was the first who started reverse-engineering on this subject and when he left the scene I decided to continue his work to keep it from going to waste. And so I would like to thank JuanNadie for his amazing contribution to the PS3 scene. Besides that, he gave me some piece of information on the subject.

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All PS2 classics runs within the ps2_netemu.self which represents a different kernel for execution these PS2 games but before it started the VSH module loads your individual data for PSN/SEN (such as act.dat and .rif file for your game). It is absolutely the same process as used for usual PSN games and the goal of it is getting the key used for decryption of PS2 content which includes an optional CONFIG file, ISO.BIN.EDAT and ISO.BIN.ENC.

The latest one is the actual encrypted disc image of the game. All mentioned files are encrypted with the same key (called klicensee) which is stored in encrypted form inside .rif file for your game and it decrypted with the specified key from key table stored in act.dat. When you get this key you can decrypt ISO.BIN.EDAT and see if it contains a game title (for example, SLUS-20062 for GTA 3). This will mean that key is correct. Since almost all the information regarding EDATs is known (see ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Talk:EDAT_files and ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Talk:NPDRM_Selfs) I will not going to explain it again.

Well, now there are two another formats along with EDAT. Let's call the first one as ENC (it represents the actual disc image) and the second as VME (encrypted virtual memory cards). They are encrypted using different algorithms. The ENC format is similar to EDAT and the VME format have a simple encryption layer.

As I said before, ENC file is similar to EDAT and it have the header like in EDAT (but with different magic) and composed of segments of 16384 bytes each (you can see it at the header). I just remind you that file header consists of file magic (PS2\x00), version number (major and minor: 01.01), license type (it always 0x02), application type (0x01), content id, QA digest (seems like to be a SHA-1 hash of the non-finalized file generated using the tool from SDK), CID-FN hash (an AES CMAC hash of concatenation of content id and file name using the third NPDRM OMAC key as CMAC key), header hash (an AES CMAC hash of the 0x60 bytes from the beginning of file using xored bytes of the first NPDRM OMAC key and the second NPDRM OMAC key as CMAC key), time information which includes start and end time of the validity period (they are usually zeroed, base ticks = 62135596800000000), file flags (always zeros), segment size (16384 bytes), data size of the file data, two unknown hashes of 16 bytes each, 40 bytes of unknown data (possible another unknown signature) and pair of an ECDSA signature (40 bytes using the second VSH curve and the VSH public key).

I also remind you that two unknown hashes for EDAT case are known and represents meta data sections hash and extended header hash (an AES CMAC hash of 160 bytes from the beginning of file), both hashes uses the hash key as CMAC key and it depends on the file flags and keys). I don't know exactly what hashes are there for ENC format but when we zeroed them it seems like they are not checked on current firmwares. The file header ends at the offset of 256 bytes.

Segments are divided into two types: a meta data section and a file data section. Each meta data section can include 512 entries (max) of 32 bytes each (16384 / 32 = 512) and associates with a particular file data section. So if we have a meta data section which consists of 512 entries then it will mean that there are 512 file data sections after it and each file data section have size of 16384 bytes.

Besides that, the first meta data segment located at the offset of 16384 bytes. I don't know what data are stored before it but we also tried to zero them (these bytes starting at the offset of 256 bytes and ending at the offset of 16384 bytes) and it works as usual. I guess that it can be the encrypted garbage because the alignment of file data should be equal to the segment size.

Now I will explain what keys are used and how they are obtained. ENC/VME files are decrypted using the ENCDEC device so the decryption process are more faster than at EDAT case. While vSH checks files for their validity period, CMAC hashes and ECDSA signature and obtains the key for decryption from .rif file and it makes a system call #475 to LV2 (on older firmwares it was #471) along with the NPDRM information, klicensee, act.dat key and encrypted rif key. LV2 gets your console ID, encrypts the NPDRM constant using it as a key, decrypts the key from act.dat using the encrypted NPDRM constant and finally decrypts klicensee from .rif using the decrypted key from act.dat. Now we have a klicensee which will be used for later decryption process.

For EDAT case we can use free EDATs without .rif but for PS2 classics we should always use paid content and .rif file. So if you want to resign the game you need to generate .rif for the account on your console (I call this process as "personalization"). Don't forget that .rif file should be created for your act.dat (because it shares the account id) and console ID. Let's move on. When the PS3 gets the final decryption key it send a packet to the system manager inside LV1 which sets the inter-lpar parameter of type 3.

This parameter contains a version information and the klicensee. A system manager catches this packet and sends a request to the storage manager inside SS server #1 which then configures ENCDEC keys used for later decryption. It should be kept in mind that keys for decryption differs between CEX and DEX consoles so the storage manager checks the device type and uses different key slots for ENCDEC.

The configuration process started with running isolated SPU SB module which creates the final keys using klicensee as a key seed and send them back to the PPU which then send them to the device directly during the secure session. There are three types of keys: meta key, data key and vmc key and they are configured separately. The process of making keys consists of applying an AES 128 algorithm on the klicensee while using three different keys.

There are SHA-1 hashes of each of three keys (you should decrypt sb_iso_spu_module.self from 4.xx FW and find each of 16 bytes key by its SHA-1 hash):

For CEX mode:

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For DEX mode (you actually don't need it but anyways):

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Now we have all keys which are required to decrypt all files. So what we should also know?

ENC encryption uses an AES algorithm in CBC mode and the initialization vector of all zeros. The actual process of decryption of CONFIG and ISO.BIN.ENC started at seeking to the offset of 16384 bytes. There is a first meta data section so we should use the meta key as key for AES and decrypt the entire segment of 16384 bytes. As I said before each meta data sections contains of some entries and each entry have a size of 32 bytes. Each entry contains a SHA-1 hash (20 bytes) of the corresponding entire encrypted file data section and all these sections are located after this meta data section. After the SHA-1 hash we can see the section index of the corresponding file data section (4 bytes).

The rest is padded of zeros. After decryption of the meta data section we can decrypt all file data sections after it. Now we should use the data key! Before the actual decryption we can check the SHA-1 hash of each encrypted file data section and see if they matched to the hashes at entry table of the meta data section. If the actual file size of the disc image is not a multiple of 16834 bytes then we have less entries inside the latest meta data section.

After we finished the decryption of first 512 file data sections we can started decryption of the second meta data section and set of 512 file data sections after it and so on. I recommend to write decrypted meta data entries to another file than in the same file as file data section. It will make a process more easier. After decryption you should truncate your actual file to the data size specified at the header. Now you got an UDF disc image and you can mount it on your PC, for example.

So what is the next step? The next step is the decryption of encrypted virtual memory cards. Each PS2 classics package contains two empty encrypted virtual memory cards which located at SCEVMC0.VME and SCEVMC1.VME. As far I see they are identical for all games so we can use templates for all new virtual memory cards but only encrypts them with the new klicensee. To decrypt virtual memory cards you need to read an each segment of 16384 bytes and apply an AES encryption in CBC mode too but for this case you should use the VMC key. After decryption you should see Sony PS2 Memory Card Format 1.2.0.0 at the top of file.

Well, I attached a draft script for decryption of ENC/VME files. It was written for Python 2.7 and requires CryptoPlus (can be downloaded from: [Register or Login to view links]) and "ecdsa" (use EasyInstall or another package manager) libraries. I intentionally left all keys as SHA-1 hashes because of legal issues but you can find all keys by yourself using my hints. My script uses CONFIG/ISO.BIN.ENC/SCEVM0.VME/SCEVM1.VME file and klicensee file as input parameters. I hope that someone will create tools for that.

To use the script you need to create a file with name vsh.curves and put the contents of the curve table from VSH (get it from ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Keys at vsh pub + curvetable) and replace all hashes of keys by their real values (see FIXME comments). Also replace three NPDRM OMAC keys and VSH public key by their values from ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Keys.

I think that creation of PS2 remastering tool can lead us to getting the fully working games on our consoles but it requires testing. I recommend to create a static klicensee which can be used to encrypt all images in the same manner (static klicensee can also be implemented by patching VSH/LV2 at runtime, for example). After generating a klicensee you should create all keys based on it.

To build an encrypted disc image you should dump the original disc image and then append zero bytes to the end to make it multiple of 16384 bytes. Then you need to encrypt each of 512 segments using the generated data key. Then you should calculate SHA-1 hashes of each encrypted segment and generate meta data section for each pair of segment hash and segment index. After this you need to encrypt meta data section and so on. At the end you need to write an original disc image size to the header, write a content id for it and generate hashes at the file header.

After building ISO.BIN.ENC file you should create a file with the title id and pad it with zero bytes from the right side to get 12 bytes total. Then you need to create an EDAT container for this file. Hint: you can see a correct title id when mounting a disc image on your PC and looking at SYSTEM.CNF of it.

Unfortunately, I hadn't time to see what the CONFIG file does so I will skip this step. I only know that this file is optional or can be empty inside (after decryption). You are not required (and you simply can't do it) to generate a valid ECDSA signature for files because all custom firmwares are patched to skip the ECDSA check. Will be nice to be able to generate a game package for your PS2 game too if everything will works fine. Remember, that some flags at PS2 pkg format can be different.

Credits to: graf_chokolo, fail0verflow, JuanNadie, ps3dev.net, glevand and all my friends (you know who you are).

Finally, from zecoxao: i found the meta key and data key for cex, as for the vmc key, no clue where it is, the two are both in my previous post. you can check the sha1 of those in any site or with any program that supports it. somebody may post those on the wiki, if they want.

i'm happy... this is good and concise info time to search for more #poop

meta (CEX) : [Register or Login to view links]

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data (CEX): [Register or Login to view links]

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From flatz: It is at sb_iso_spu_module.elf too. First two bytes are 64 E3...

VMC key:

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kudos to this man








Stay tuned for more PS3 Hacks and PS3 CFW news, follow us on Twitter and be sure to drop by the PS3 Hacks and PS3 Custom Firmware Forums for the latest PlayStation 3 scene updates and homebrew releases!

Comments 728 Comments - Go to Forum Thread »

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misiozol's Avatar
#708 - misiozol - 4w ago
There you go my friend 71 pages of knowledge: [Register or Login to view links]

ahole's Avatar
#707 - ahole - 4w ago
why did you buy this??? not knowing what to do or where to start I for one wnt be wasting time explaining the ins and outs if you cant take the time to learn sell it

makemind's Avatar
#706 - makemind - 4w ago
Hello, i bought a ps3 with ode and i need to know where to start!

I read about Firmwares and i don't know what kind is mine... It's a 4.53, but i don't know if it's OFW or CFW ...

then, i think i need to install, for example, Habib CFW 4.53 right? Then, i need multiman for better experience right? Using showtime etc ...

I really don't know what to do, if i can upgrade firmware by software only or so ...

Can someone help me start please??

Thanks a lot

PS3 News's Avatar
#705 - PS3 News - 5w ago
27 - 8 - 2014: Cobra ODE News - Update - Cobra ODE Firmware v2.2 Fixed2

We have updated the 2.2 fw archives for Cobra ODE v5.30A with chipset "M2S010" to correct a problem which prevented updating from 2.1 to 2.2.

All 5.30A users should therefore update to 2.2 with this update.

Download: Cobra ODE Firmware v2.2 Fixed2

Note: This UPDATE require 2 steps:

1: Copy "v5p30A10_step1.spi" to your USB key.

2: Rename file on USB key to "v5p30A10.spi" and use ("safely remove hardware") from windows.

3: Proceed with UPDATE. *Refer to Cobra_ODE_V5_Update_Process_(_README_FIRST_).pdf *

4: When process is done with "solid GREEN LED" then then remove USB key and (Unplug PS3 power cable).

5: Delete file on USB key and copy "v5p30A10_step2.spi" to this last.

6: Rename file on USB key to "v5p30A10.spi" and use ("safely remove hardware") from windows.

7: Proceed with UPDATE.

8: When process is done with "solid GREEN LED" then remove USB key and (Power Cycle PS3).

Done!





Also from Roor today comes an update to HCL - Humble Cobra Launcher as follows: Today I'm making the second release of HCL.

Download: [Register or Login to view links]

Here are the most important changes in this version (HCL V0.2):

  • Graphical enhancements. Most glitches are fixed. Better Icons.
  • Better autodetection of PS1 and PS2 titles and covers.
  • Added File Manager in Tools section. Now you can copy/move/delete folders and files.
  • Added FTP Server in Tools section. Now you can access your PS3 through wifi using any FTP client, including Windows Explorer.
  • Integrated Showtime in Tools section. Just select it, and enjoy your movies.
  • Initial Disc Rip support in Tools section (doesn't work well yet, though).
  • Settings and stuff now are saved INSIDE your PS3 HDD. HCL remembers the last game you mounted, and loads faster.

Coming features (in following weekly updates):

  • Disc Ripper (fully functional).
  • PKG Installer (great progress has been made, but not stable enough for release yet)
  • Integration with some Emulators and Players.
  • Sound Effects.

In this opportunity, I'm posting some screenshots. Please write feedback. Cheers.

Update: HCL - Humble Cobra Laucher v0.3 by Roor

Download: [Register or Login to view links] / [Register or Login to view links] (Mirror) / [Register or Login to view links] (Mirror #2) / [Register or Login to view links] (HCL v0.3 without PS1 and PS2 Covers, and without Eleganz) / [Register or Login to view links] (HCL v0.3 removed the still unused 3 gamecode databases)

Hi. As promised (again), here's the third weekly update of HCL (Humble Cobra Launcher).

HCL is a Cobra ODE manager. If you want to use it, just replace the original "cobra manager" (manager.iso) and make sure that your "cobra.cfg" is already set to use homebrew.

Here are the most important changes in this version (HCL V0.3):

  • PKG Installer. (yes, you now can install demos, games and homebrews from PKG files - read bellow for further information).
  • Hex Viewer. Now you can open any file from the File Manager and have a look at its binary contents.
  • Better File Manager. Now it has icons, allows to execute .self files (correctly located and signed), install .pkg files and Hex Viewer.
  • Graphical enhancements. And better resolution backgrounds.
  • Faster load time. Once installed, HCL takes less than 8 seconds to start and allow access to your games!

Coming features (in following weekly updates):

  • Disc Ripper (present right now, but seems that doesn't work in ALL Cobra ODE, I'm still investigating the issue).
  • Better PKG Installer (support for game updates and DLC installs)
  • Param.sfo Viewer.
  • Image Viewers.
  • Integration with some Emulators.
  • Sound Effects.

About PKG INSTALLER:

  • PKG Installer, for now, only allows you to install Games, Demos, Homebrews, and others. But it WILL NOT allow you to install Game Updates nor DLCs. This is because a "safety" measure I implemented that doesn't allow the installer to write over "already existing content" inside your PS3. This feature, after further investigation, might be added in next update.
  • You can install PKG from the File Manager. Just "select" it, and you will be asked if you want to install the file.
  • The PKG INSTALLER from TOOLS menu, will ask you to place the file you want to install in a USB Drive and it must be named INSTALL.PKG . Remember that the USB Drive must be formated as FAT32. Also, you can install the same file through the FILE MANAGER if you want (it's exactly the same internal procedure).
  • The INSTALLER does not "crack" the games for you. Most PSN content, if not cracked before install, will just run in "demo mode" or not run at all.
  • The INSTALLER will install PS1, PS2 classics content and others. But the games will surely not work, because their licence is surely "not activated".
  • After installing a PKG, you need to enter into GAMEDATA TOOL menu of PS3, this will force XMB menu to update, and then it will display the icon to the stuff you just installed.

Please write feedback. Cheers.

PS3 News's Avatar
#704 - PS3 News - 6w ago
21 - 8 - 2014: Cobra ODE News - Update

We have updated the 2.2 fw archives to correct errors in the names of the update files for Cobra ODE ver 5.30A and files relating to PSX auto patching. The PDF for 5.xx board include in archive have been updated as well. We have also updated the user manual to reflect these changes.

Users kindly ensure that update files should be named as follow for 5.30A Hardware:

Chipset M2S010 file name should be v5p30A10.spi or Chipset M2S025 file name should be v5p30A25.spi

Download: Cobra ODE Firmware v2.2 Fixed / [Register or Login to view links] / [Register or Login to view links] (Mirror)

Also from Roor comes HCL - Humble Cobra Laucher with details below as follows:

Download: [Register or Login to view links]

Hi. Since last week I've been working on my own Cobra Manager. I begun it because I wanted a fast-loading, easy to use Manager for my games; that I feel comfortable with.

It is still "under development" but it already does all what the official Cobra Manager does, more and in a faster way.

If someone is interested in testing, please let me know and I'll send you a first "private" beta tomorrow night. I'm quite limited in testings, as I only have one PS3. So it has only been tested with Cobra ODE 4.30A in my Slim PS3.

I'm posting some pictures I took with my phone last night (my screenshot capability is zero right now).

Thanks in advance,

Roor.

Update: Hi. After being tested by some users, I'm releasing my first version of HCL (Humble Cobra Launcher).

Basically another homebrew that works in the line like SonicMan, Cobra Manager, GameSonic and similar.

It was created during last week, and designed specifically for Cobra ODE. My plan is to make a couple of weekly releases until I find myself satisfied with the product; and then to make updates from time to time based on new Cobra ODE releases and features.

In order to use it, just place the manager.iso file in your COBRA folder, and make sure to set your Cobra.cfg to use homebrew.

If you have a PS3 Slim, like me, I recommend setting your EJECT.DELAY=10000 in Cobra.Cfg and set your PS3 to to auto start games when discs are inserted.

Here are the current features (HCL V0.1):

  • Compatible with the latest Cobra MCU.
  • Very fast loading times, compared to other Managers.
  • PS1 and PS2 game covers included. (covers are autodetected based on GameVolume name. Will be improved later).
  • Separate menus for every Cobra flavour : PS1, PS2, PS3, DVD and BLURAY.
  • Many integrated tools (disabled on this first release).
  • As stealth as possible. HCL is recognized as "PS MOVE STARTER PACK". And doesn't touch PS3 HDD at all.
  • Cache mode: If you plug a FAT32 formated USB Drive, Covers, Icons and even Cobra's Fodlers are cached into your USB. It takes a bit longer the first time, but it makes HCL boot a lot faster from then on.
  • Some graphical glitches, which will be fixed on next release.

Future features (weekly updates expected):

  • File Browser (ready right now, but being tested).
  • Disc Ripper (ready right now, but being improved with "multithreading" in order to make it even faster).
  • PKG Installer (still under study)
  • Integration with some Emulators and Players.
  • Automatic detection of PS1 and PS2 covers (right now you need to set the "disc names" to the name code, in order to get this working).
  • Save Settings and Cache inside PS3 HDD (once it is considered stealth enough).
  • Sound Effects.
  • Graphical Enhancements.
  • Faster navigation.

Please write feedback.

Cheers.

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