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Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2) Classics Algorithm Revealed by Flat_z

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80w ago - Following up on the previous updates, today PlayStation 3 developer Flat_z has revealed the Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2) Classics algorithm with details below.

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To quote: Ok, guys. Unfortunately I forced to admit that I have no more time to work on PS3 stuff because I'm very busy lately. So I decided to publish all information related to PS2 classics as JuanNadie did with the NPDRM algorithm one year ago.

Firstly I wanted to say that he was the first who started reverse-engineering on this subject and when he left the scene I decided to continue his work to keep it from going to waste. And so I would like to thank JuanNadie for his amazing contribution to the PS3 scene. Besides that, he gave me some piece of information on the subject.

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All PS2 classics runs within the ps2_netemu.self which represents a different kernel for execution these PS2 games but before it started the VSH module loads your individual data for PSN/SEN (such as act.dat and .rif file for your game). It is absolutely the same process as used for usual PSN games and the goal of it is getting the key used for decryption of PS2 content which includes an optional CONFIG file, ISO.BIN.EDAT and ISO.BIN.ENC.

The latest one is the actual encrypted disc image of the game. All mentioned files are encrypted with the same key (called klicensee) which is stored in encrypted form inside .rif file for your game and it decrypted with the specified key from key table stored in act.dat. When you get this key you can decrypt ISO.BIN.EDAT and see if it contains a game title (for example, SLUS-20062 for GTA 3). This will mean that key is correct. Since almost all the information regarding EDATs is known (see ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Talk:EDAT_files and ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Talk:NPDRM_Selfs) I will not going to explain it again.

Well, now there are two another formats along with EDAT. Let's call the first one as ENC (it represents the actual disc image) and the second as VME (encrypted virtual memory cards). They are encrypted using different algorithms. The ENC format is similar to EDAT and the VME format have a simple encryption layer.

As I said before, ENC file is similar to EDAT and it have the header like in EDAT (but with different magic) and composed of segments of 16384 bytes each (you can see it at the header). I just remind you that file header consists of file magic (PS2\x00), version number (major and minor: 01.01), license type (it always 0x02), application type (0x01), content id, QA digest (seems like to be a SHA-1 hash of the non-finalized file generated using the tool from SDK), CID-FN hash (an AES CMAC hash of concatenation of content id and file name using the third NPDRM OMAC key as CMAC key), header hash (an AES CMAC hash of the 0x60 bytes from the beginning of file using xored bytes of the first NPDRM OMAC key and the second NPDRM OMAC key as CMAC key), time information which includes start and end time of the validity period (they are usually zeroed, base ticks = 62135596800000000), file flags (always zeros), segment size (16384 bytes), data size of the file data, two unknown hashes of 16 bytes each, 40 bytes of unknown data (possible another unknown signature) and pair of an ECDSA signature (40 bytes using the second VSH curve and the VSH public key).

I also remind you that two unknown hashes for EDAT case are known and represents meta data sections hash and extended header hash (an AES CMAC hash of 160 bytes from the beginning of file), both hashes uses the hash key as CMAC key and it depends on the file flags and keys). I don't know exactly what hashes are there for ENC format but when we zeroed them it seems like they are not checked on current firmwares. The file header ends at the offset of 256 bytes.

Segments are divided into two types: a meta data section and a file data section. Each meta data section can include 512 entries (max) of 32 bytes each (16384 / 32 = 512) and associates with a particular file data section. So if we have a meta data section which consists of 512 entries then it will mean that there are 512 file data sections after it and each file data section have size of 16384 bytes.

Besides that, the first meta data segment located at the offset of 16384 bytes. I don't know what data are stored before it but we also tried to zero them (these bytes starting at the offset of 256 bytes and ending at the offset of 16384 bytes) and it works as usual. I guess that it can be the encrypted garbage because the alignment of file data should be equal to the segment size.

Now I will explain what keys are used and how they are obtained. ENC/VME files are decrypted using the ENCDEC device so the decryption process are more faster than at EDAT case. While vSH checks files for their validity period, CMAC hashes and ECDSA signature and obtains the key for decryption from .rif file and it makes a system call #475 to LV2 (on older firmwares it was #471) along with the NPDRM information, klicensee, act.dat key and encrypted rif key. LV2 gets your console ID, encrypts the NPDRM constant using it as a key, decrypts the key from act.dat using the encrypted NPDRM constant and finally decrypts klicensee from .rif using the decrypted key from act.dat. Now we have a klicensee which will be used for later decryption process.

For EDAT case we can use free EDATs without .rif but for PS2 classics we should always use paid content and .rif file. So if you want to resign the game you need to generate .rif for the account on your console (I call this process as "personalization"). Don't forget that .rif file should be created for your act.dat (because it shares the account id) and console ID. Let's move on. When the PS3 gets the final decryption key it send a packet to the system manager inside LV1 which sets the inter-lpar parameter of type 3.

This parameter contains a version information and the klicensee. A system manager catches this packet and sends a request to the storage manager inside SS server #1 which then configures ENCDEC keys used for later decryption. It should be kept in mind that keys for decryption differs between CEX and DEX consoles so the storage manager checks the device type and uses different key slots for ENCDEC.

The configuration process started with running isolated SPU SB module which creates the final keys using klicensee as a key seed and send them back to the PPU which then send them to the device directly during the secure session. There are three types of keys: meta key, data key and vmc key and they are configured separately. The process of making keys consists of applying an AES 128 algorithm on the klicensee while using three different keys.

There are SHA-1 hashes of each of three keys (you should decrypt sb_iso_spu_module.self from 4.xx FW and find each of 16 bytes key by its SHA-1 hash):

For CEX mode:

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For DEX mode (you actually don't need it but anyways):

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Now we have all keys which are required to decrypt all files. So what we should also know?

ENC encryption uses an AES algorithm in CBC mode and the initialization vector of all zeros. The actual process of decryption of CONFIG and ISO.BIN.ENC started at seeking to the offset of 16384 bytes. There is a first meta data section so we should use the meta key as key for AES and decrypt the entire segment of 16384 bytes. As I said before each meta data sections contains of some entries and each entry have a size of 32 bytes. Each entry contains a SHA-1 hash (20 bytes) of the corresponding entire encrypted file data section and all these sections are located after this meta data section. After the SHA-1 hash we can see the section index of the corresponding file data section (4 bytes).

The rest is padded of zeros. After decryption of the meta data section we can decrypt all file data sections after it. Now we should use the data key! Before the actual decryption we can check the SHA-1 hash of each encrypted file data section and see if they matched to the hashes at entry table of the meta data section. If the actual file size of the disc image is not a multiple of 16834 bytes then we have less entries inside the latest meta data section.

After we finished the decryption of first 512 file data sections we can started decryption of the second meta data section and set of 512 file data sections after it and so on. I recommend to write decrypted meta data entries to another file than in the same file as file data section. It will make a process more easier. After decryption you should truncate your actual file to the data size specified at the header. Now you got an UDF disc image and you can mount it on your PC, for example.

So what is the next step? The next step is the decryption of encrypted virtual memory cards. Each PS2 classics package contains two empty encrypted virtual memory cards which located at SCEVMC0.VME and SCEVMC1.VME. As far I see they are identical for all games so we can use templates for all new virtual memory cards but only encrypts them with the new klicensee. To decrypt virtual memory cards you need to read an each segment of 16384 bytes and apply an AES encryption in CBC mode too but for this case you should use the VMC key. After decryption you should see Sony PS2 Memory Card Format at the top of file.

Well, I attached a draft script for decryption of ENC/VME files. It was written for Python 2.7 and requires CryptoPlus (can be downloaded from: [Register or Login to view links]) and "ecdsa" (use EasyInstall or another package manager) libraries. I intentionally left all keys as SHA-1 hashes because of legal issues but you can find all keys by yourself using my hints. My script uses CONFIG/ISO.BIN.ENC/SCEVM0.VME/SCEVM1.VME file and klicensee file as input parameters. I hope that someone will create tools for that.

To use the script you need to create a file with name vsh.curves and put the contents of the curve table from VSH (get it from ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Keys at vsh pub + curvetable) and replace all hashes of keys by their real values (see FIXME comments). Also replace three NPDRM OMAC keys and VSH public key by their values from ps3devwiki.com/wiki/Keys.

I think that creation of PS2 remastering tool can lead us to getting the fully working games on our consoles but it requires testing. I recommend to create a static klicensee which can be used to encrypt all images in the same manner (static klicensee can also be implemented by patching VSH/LV2 at runtime, for example). After generating a klicensee you should create all keys based on it.

To build an encrypted disc image you should dump the original disc image and then append zero bytes to the end to make it multiple of 16384 bytes. Then you need to encrypt each of 512 segments using the generated data key. Then you should calculate SHA-1 hashes of each encrypted segment and generate meta data section for each pair of segment hash and segment index. After this you need to encrypt meta data section and so on. At the end you need to write an original disc image size to the header, write a content id for it and generate hashes at the file header.

After building ISO.BIN.ENC file you should create a file with the title id and pad it with zero bytes from the right side to get 12 bytes total. Then you need to create an EDAT container for this file. Hint: you can see a correct title id when mounting a disc image on your PC and looking at SYSTEM.CNF of it.

Unfortunately, I hadn't time to see what the CONFIG file does so I will skip this step. I only know that this file is optional or can be empty inside (after decryption). You are not required (and you simply can't do it) to generate a valid ECDSA signature for files because all custom firmwares are patched to skip the ECDSA check. Will be nice to be able to generate a game package for your PS2 game too if everything will works fine. Remember, that some flags at PS2 pkg format can be different.

Credits to: graf_chokolo, fail0verflow, JuanNadie, ps3dev.net, glevand and all my friends (you know who you are).

Finally, from zecoxao: i found the meta key and data key for cex, as for the vmc key, no clue where it is, the two are both in my previous post. you can check the sha1 of those in any site or with any program that supports it. somebody may post those on the wiki, if they want.

i'm happy... this is good and concise info time to search for more #poop

meta (CEX) : [Register or Login to view links]

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data (CEX): [Register or Login to view links]

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From flatz: It is at sb_iso_spu_module.elf too. First two bytes are 64 E3...

VMC key:

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kudos to this man

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PS3 News's Avatar
#714 - PS3 News - 2w ago
10 - 9 - 2014: Cobra ODE News - Information

Team Cobra can now confirm that all Cobra ODE versions (v3/v4 and v5 hardware) are functional on OFW 4.65 whilst using Cobra 2.2 fw on 4k series consoles.

10 - 9 - 2014: Cobra ODE News - Information

Pictured below is the new DMC module for PHAT PATA, SATA PHAT, 2k, 2k5 and 3k consoles which enables use of all versions of Cobra ODE (3.xx/4.xx and 5.xx) on 4.60 OFW. A swap disc is required in line with current usage of Cobra ODE on OFW 4.60 and 4k consoles.

The DMC module has an Actel FPGA on board which controls the optical lens' units disc eject motor, thus enabling us to insert and remove discs without detection by the drive controller. The onboard FPGA is linked to a USB PHY which enables full reprogramming of the FPGA at any time via USB connected to your PC.

The Cobra DMC connects to the Cobra ODE (all models) via the JTAG 24 pin FFC port on the Cobra ODE and the "main" port on the Cobra DMC. All necessary cables are included.

The Cobra DMC can be mounted adjacent to the optical drive of your PS3. The module then connects to the eject motor inside your drive, without soldering via FFC cables.

The suggested retail price of the Cobra ODE DMC is USD 29.99 or less.

First shipments of Cobra DMC will be with resellers by September 30th latest. Please pre-order early to avoid disappointment.

The 5.1B and 5.3A Cobra ODE devices can also be purchased bundled with the DMC module for 20 USD extra approximately.

The Cobra Team is now testing the recently released 4.65 OFW to confirm compatibility, verification results will be posted soon.


  • You will just need DMC and swap disk ONLY ON older consoles (FAT, SLIMS 2K, 3K ) if you update to 4.60 or 4.65.

HCL - Humble Cobra Laucher v0.4 by Roor

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Hi. As promised (again), here's the fourth weekly update of HCL (Humble Cobra Launcher).
This week I didn't have much spare time, and couldn't dedicate more than a couple of hours... so there's little I was able to add to HCL.

And I had even less time for beta-testing... I hope no "big" bugs were left in this version. Sorry for that...

HCL is a Cobra ODE manager. If you want to use it, just replace the original "cobra manager" (manager.iso) and make sure that your "cobra.cfg" is already set to use homebrew.

Here are the most important changes in this version (HCL V0.4):

  • Improved PKG Installer. Now you can install "cracks" and other stuff. Please read below for further info.
  • New Emulators Section. Here I will be adding emulators for different systems, so you will be able to run ROMS from any USB Stick.
  • NES/Famicom Emulator. I included a NES Emulator (Fceu), just select it from the "emulators" section, then just "browse" and select your .NES rom.
  • SNES/SuperFamicom Emulator. I included a SNES Emulator, just select it from the "emulators" section, then just "browse" and select your .SMC rom.
  • Sega Genesis Emulator. I included a Genesis/Megadrive Emulator, just select it from the "emulators" section, then just "browse" and select your .GEN rom.
  • Alternative Installation. If you do not want HCL to put stuff inside your internal HDD, you can place a USB stick into the zero USB Slot (the one to the right). If HCL detects a file named "hcl.cfg" inside it, it will use the Stick for storing datafiles instead.

Coming features (in following weekly updates):

  • Disc Ripper (present right now, but seems that doesn't work in ALL Cobra ODE, I'm still investigating the issue).
  • Better PKG Installer (support for game updates and DLC installs)
  • Param.sfo Viewer.
  • Image Viewers.
  • Better and more Emulators.
  • Sound Effects.


I can't take credit for the emulators nor for Elleganz, nor for the bugs they may carry.
I'll try to make sure that HCL gets the best version available for each, and of course that they run fine with Cobra ODE.

I noticed, for example, that the "font size" for the NES one is "extremely" small, and so...
I'll try to work our these issues for next version, and "recompile" and modify the emulators from their latest source if necessary.


  • PKG Installer, for now, only allows you to install Games, Demos, Homebrews, and others. But it WILL NOT allow you to install Game Updates nor DLCs (nor PS1 games, nor PS2 games... ONLY PS3/PSN GAMES); Although now you can "overwrite" folders and files in order to install DLC, or cracks; HCL will tell you and ask if you want to "overwrite stuff". Take into consideration that everytime you overwrite something there's a chance you "break" the previously installe game.

  • The INSTALLER does not "crack" the games for you. Most PSN content, if not cracked before install, will just run in "demo mode" or not run at all.

  • The INSTALLER will NOT install PS1, PS2 classics content and others (only PS3 GAMES); this kind of packages cannot be installed with HCL yet (they might have crash HCL).

  • After installing a PKG, you need to enter into GAMEDATA TOOL menu of PS3, this will force XMB menu to update, and then it will display the icon to the stuff you just installed.

  • If you want to add more files to an already existing installation, I suggest to use the File Browser and copy the files as needed.

Please write feedback.


How to Update Cobra ODE VER 05.10B (v5p10B10.spi) Tutorial by alzaabi

This is only for Cobra Ode VER 05.10B with the chip of (v5p10B10.spi) By ALZAABI as the image shows...

After testing and testing several times, and i am sure of these steps to FIX

1- for those who could not update to FW2.2
2- for those who get errors when using swap disk

Try to update your Cobra Ode twice...

Download: [Register or Login to view links] / [Register or Login to view links] / [Register or Login to view links]

OR download from the attached files... You Should have a good flash drive... if you follow these steps you will be able to update your Cobra Ode with this chip (v5p10B10.spi) successfully without and problems and you will be able to play games without errors.

*Disconnect your ps3 from the Power and put the updates one by one... every update should finish with green Led... when it finish with green Led put the next update... and so on

1- FW_2.0(v5p10B10.spi)
2- Defective_Boards_Update_File(v5p10B10.spi)
3- v2.2_FIXED2(v5p10B10.spi)

Try to update your Cobra Ode twice with the steps above. When you turn on your PS3 with the correct setting in your HDD you will see Cobra Browser 2.2, and you will get rid of the errors

just, thank me.

evilpacer's Avatar
#713 - evilpacer - 2w ago
Hi, Is it possible with CFW Creator to generate a 4.65 MFW as a Firmware DB, with a cobra ode patch?

Like a merge with [Register or Login to view links] and [Register or Login to view links]


Disabled ECDSA in LV0 loaders (Isoloader).
Disabled ECDSA in SPU PKG (spu_pkg_rvk_verifier).
No function for CFW'S enabled. So, no nothing Homebrew and Backup.
No QA FLAG Enabled.
Possible Downgrade.
Size of the PUP almost identical to that of OFW 4.65.

I'm sorry for my bad english

makemind's Avatar
#712 - makemind - 3w ago
Hi guys, i'm new to this world and a friend has told me that i need showtime ...

How can i install it on mine PS3? What more can i install on it?

Thanks a lot

#711 - ABEDROOF - 3w ago
i'm asking if i can use mfw to play on cobra ode with out swap disc ?

saito1234's Avatar
#710 - saito1234 - 3w ago
I'd like to install the 1.01 patch for Mugen Souls Z, which is a very important fix, otherwise the game freezes in different places.

After I install the patch for EUR version the game boots up, but I can't do anything, as an XMB system message comes up "You have to quit a game".

I also have the Japanese version of the game, and the japanese 1.01 patch, if I install that there's only a "black screen", while with the english patch at least there's an error message, though the difference isn't big.

Without installing the patch both versions work fine, while after installing the patch both of them are unplayable.

I heard this problem ONLY occurs on Cobra CFW (Rogero, Habib, etc.), and it works fine on "normal" CFW.

Does anyone have any idea if it's possible to fix it on Cobra?

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